Malcolm II (1005–1034)
While the English were struggling to fight off Viking Danish raids, Malcolm took the opportunity to defeat them at the Battle of Carham and regain Lothian in 1018. King Cnut, the Danish king of England invaded Scotland in 1027 and forced Malcolm king to submit to him. But Malcolm held on to Lothian and made alliances with Strathclyde and Orkney.
Duncan I (1034–1040)
Malcolm III and his English wife Margaret gave their children English or non-Scottish names, such as Edgar, Edmund, Edith, David and Alexander, rather than traditional Scots regal names such as Malcolm, Cináed and Áed.
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