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World history since 1945

Representatives of member countries meet to discuss the global environmental situation at the Assembly General of the United...Read More >>Representatives of member countries meet to discuss the global environmental situation at the Assembly General of the United Nations, in New York City, USA, 24th September 2007.World War II left up to 85 million people dead and countless cities in Europe and Asia in ruins. Six million Jews and many more regarded by the Nazis as “undesirable” had been murdered in the Holocaust. To ensure that such a war could not happen again, in 1945, 50 nations signed the charter of the United Nations. But the world was soon dividing into two opposing military alliances again, the United States-led NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. 


US president John F. Kennedy (right) and Soviet president Nikita Khrushchev (left) shake hands in Vienna, Austria, in 1961.

Two postwar
superpowers

At the end of the war, it was clear that two countries—the United States of America and the Soviet Union (USSR)—had become the world’s leading powers, the “superpowers”. However, these two superpowers had deep political and economic differences.

Immediately following the partitioning of India into the separate states of Pakistan and India, 7,226,000 Muslims went to Pakistan from India, while 7,250,000 Sikhs and Hindus moved to India from Pakistan.

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