You are here: Geography > South America > Argentina


A map of Argentina coloured to show highland and lowland regions, vegetation and urban centresArgentina is South America’s second largest country by land area, after Brazil, and its largest Spanish-speaking nation. The Andes Mountains stretch down its western edge, creating a natural border with Chile. A flat grassland region called the Pampas slopes gently from these mountains to the eastern Atlantic coast. In the north, an area of hot scrubland and forest, known as the Gran Chaco, extends into neighbouring Paraguay and Bolivia. Much of southern Argentina lies on a windy, exposed plateau known as Patagonia. At its southern tip are the rocky islands of Tierra del Fuego (the “Land of Fire", named after the Indian camp fires sighted by the Portuguese explorer Magellan). Most of Argentina has a temperate climate with warm summers and cold winters, but its northern regions are tropical, with hot, humid weather for much of the year. 

A map of Argentina
Football fans on the streets of Buenos aires


Argentina is home to immigrants from many different countries. The majority of people are descended from Europeans—mainly from Spain, Italy and Germany—who started to arrive from the early 16th century. The late 19th century and early 20th century saw massive immigration from Europe, encouraged by the Argentine government. In recent years, people from Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Asia and the Middle East, have moved to Argentina. 

Tango music and dancing grew up in the working-class port areas of Buenos Aires from the mid-19th century.

Q-files now has new sections specially written for younger readers. They are: Living world, Earth, Science, Human body, Prehistoric life, Space, History, Geography and Technology.

Find the answer