Kenneth I (Kenneth MacAlpin, 843–858) After defeating the Picts in about 843, Kenneth united them with the Scots to form the new kingdom of Alba (a large part of present-day Scotland). A great warrior, Kenneth invaded Northumbria six times, and repelled attacks from both the Britons of Strathclyde and the Vikings.
Donald I (858–862) Little is known about his reign.
Constantine I (862–877) The son of Kenneth I, Constantine I was killed in battle against Viking invaders at Forgan, Fife.
Aed (877–878) Aed succeeded his brother in 877, but was killed a year later by Giric, who seized the throne.
Giric (878–889) Giric possibly ruled jointly with Eochaid, who claimed the Pictish throne.
Donald II (889–900) Son of Constantine I, Donald struggled to fight off Viking invaders.
Constantine II (900–943) The son of Aed, Constantine II ruled for over 40 years. Not only did he successfully repel Viking raids, he launched several attacks on Northumbria himself. Constantine made an alliance with the Vikings in Ireland in an attempt to deter the English from advancing northwards. But he was finally defeated by the Anglo-Saxon king Athelstan at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937. Constantine II abdicated in 943.
Malcolm I (943–954) The son of Donald II, Malcolm I supported the Viking Danish kingdom of Jorvik (York) in the 940s against the English. He was killed in battle.
Indulf (954–962) The son of Constantine II, Indulf died fighting the Danes.
Dubh (Duff, 962–966) The son of Malcolm I, Dubh was challenged for the throne by Culen, and was killed by Culen’s army at Moray.
Culen (966–971) Son of Indulf, Culen took the throne from Dubh, but was himself killed in Lothian in 971 by the King of Strathclyde, whose daughter he had seized.
Kenneth II (971–995) In return for recognizing King Edgar of England as his overlord, Kenneth II secured Lothian for Scotland. When he invaded England in about 994, however, Lothian was lost again. In revenge for killing Culen's brother in 977, he was himself killed by Culen's son, Constantine, in 995.
Constantine III (995–997) Having killed Kenneth II, Constantine III seized the crown. But he was himself murdered in 997—probably by his successor, Kenneth.
Kenneth III (997–1005) Kenneth III was killed in battle at Monzievaird, Perthshire, by Malcolm, son of Kenneth II, who seized the throne.
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