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How does a submarine dive and surface?

A submarine cruising at the surfaceA submarine (or "sub") is a vessel that can travel under the water as well as on the surface. Most large submarines have a tube-shaped hull with a tower, called a conning tower, on top. There is a propeller at the rear end. Just like a plane, a submarine has a rudder, tailfin and tailplane. These can all be adjusted to control and steer the sub through the water. The crew can see above the surface of the water by using a periscope, which runs up through the conning tower.

Nuclear submarine

Cutaway illustrations of a nuclear submarine and submersible

Control room of a nuclear submarine

The first submersible was built in 1620 by Dutch inventor Cornelius Drebbel. It was propelled underwater using oars.

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